Men of Letters

A.A. Milne and Z.Z. Top are not just at the opposite ends of the 20th century’s cultural and chronological spectrum, they are also polar examples of another kind.

I mean, of course, in the alphabetical use of two initials as a form of nomenclature, which, as a device, often makes for a memorable moniker. Oscar Wilde, in his time, knew a few characters thus named, including two of the most celebrated: W. B. Yeats and H. G. Wells.

However, on this day I should like to focus on two similarly styled, but lesser known, artists in the Wilde story, for they share a bond more profound than the form of their familiar names: I refer to F. D. Millet and W.T. Stead.

F. D. Millet, portrait by George Du Maurier, 1889.

Francis Davis Millet
was an American painter, sculptor, and writer with whom Wilde became acquainted quite early on in his American lecture tour of 1882.

On January 11 that year Millet was invited to a reception given for Wilde at the Dress Association on W. 23rd St., hosted by the proprietor of that cooperative enterprise, the journalist and actress, Kate Field. Also present were the actress Clara Morris, E.C. Stedman, and other artists and painters including Elihu Vedder.

At the event Wilde enjoyed a  “bohemian luncheon” at which he attempted to interest Morris in his latest play, which she eventually refused. Of more immediately use to Oscar, however, was his meeting with Millet which provided him with an entrée into the aesthetic community of New York City.

Millet, along with Vedder, was a members of the Tile Club—so called because painting decorative ceramic tiles was one of their pursuits. The Tile Club was an elusive collective of up to 30 notable New York writers, artists and architects who met between 1877 and 1887, usually on Wednesday evenings at their various studios. Other alumni include William Merritt Chase, Edwin Abbey, Stanford White, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, John Twachtman, and Napoleon Sarony.

Wilde later visited Millet at his studio, and, like Mark Twain before him, was also made a guest at a Tile Club gathering in New York. For Wilde, it was to be the beginning of a long acquaintance with Millet which included their joint attendance at a banquet given to American authors in London in 1888. Wilde’s neighbor around this time, John Singer Sargent, often used Millet’s daughter, Kate, as a model.

John Singer Sargent, Kate Millet, 1886
An Autumn Idyll. Oil on canvas, Brooklyn Museum. Signed bottom left, F.D. Millet, 1892.

Soldier of Fortune: F.D. Millet 1846-1912 - Joyce A. Sharpey-Schafer - Google Books 2016-04-11 V1
Elihu Vedder: American visionary artist in Rome (1836-1923) - Regina Soria - Google Books 2016-04-11

Bookplate of F.D. Millet.
W. T. Stead

Our second man of letters is William Thomas Stead, the influential English newspaper editor, whose campaign against child prostitution and abduction led to changes in the law. Unfortunately, an unintended consequence was that the same law was manipulated to re-criminalised homosexual acts and was later used to convict Wilde.


Stead was largely influential in launching Wilde’s career in journalism, and as editor of Pall Mall Gazette he published dozens of reviews and articles by Wilde that appeared in the paper between 1885 and 1890. He was also generous in print about Oscar at the time of his trials. By chance he later met Wilde in Paris, and, unlike so many others, greeted him as an old friend. When De Profundis was published in 1905, he wrote to Robert Ross saying how “profoundly touching” it was, confirming that he had never joined the herd of Wilde’s assailants.

So we have two old friends of Wilde’s, Millet and Stead, and while it is not clear whether they were ever drawn together in life—although it is likely—we do know one fact. They were destined to be together in death.

On This Day

104 years ago today F.D. Millet and W.T. Stead were passengers aboard the ill-fated R.M.S. Titanic which sank on April 15th, 1912.

Stead was sighted by survivor Philip Mock clinging to a raft along with John Jacob Astor IV: “Their feet became frozen,” reported Mock, “and they were compelled to release their hold”, never to be seen again.

Millet, whose body was recovered, was reported last seen helping women and children into lifeboats.

It is a sad footnote for two of men of letters in the Wilde story. I wonder whether in 1912 their thoughts might just for a moment have been with Wilde. Perhaps not. But in appreciation of friendship long past, it is the hope on this day that our Wildean thoughts might just for a moment be with them.


Francis Davis Millet Titanic Victim

Memorial plaque in Central Park, New York. A similar plaque, with a different inscription, is displayed on Victoria Embankment, London.


Encyclopedia Titanica: F.D. Millet

Encyclopedia Titanica: : W. T. Stead

On this page, I report the ship on which Oscar Wilde sailed twice, the S.S. Arizona, which had its own Titanic moment.

Published by

John Cooper

John Cooper is a independent scholar who has spent 30 years in the study of Oscar Wilde. He is a long-standing member of the Oscar Wilde Society, a founding member of the Oscar Wilde Society of America, and a former manager of the Victorian Society In America. For the last 20 years Cooper has specialised in Wilde’s 1882 lecture tour becoming a consultant on Wilde’s American experience to biographers and the wider media. Cooper lectures on Wilde and has conducted new and unique research into Oscar Wilde visits to New York culminating in a guided walking tour. Online he is a popular blogger and the creator of the noncommercial archive 'Oscar Wilde in America’ which incorporates his work on the Sarony photographs, and a detailed documentary verification of Wilde’s American lecture tour. In 2012 Cooper rediscovered Wilde's essay The Philosophy Of Dress that forms the centerpiece to his book Oscar Wilde On Dress (2013).

4 thoughts on “Men of Letters”

  1. Stead was also something of a fan of Constance Wilde; and in June 1895 refused – probably sensibly – to publish a letter from Lord Alfred Douglas defending homosexuality, even though his magazine, Review of Reviews, was about the only one sympathetic to Wilde and antagonistic to the English legal system.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Loved this article and particularly Wilde’s relationship with the Tile Club, Millet, Twain and the gang. As a far-sided note – I’m wondering if Wilde felt the same for Millet’s Roman subjects while visiting his studio with the same appreciation he had for Monet’s more bright and scenic subjects in which he once said – “Sunsets started imitating Monet’s paintings once he taught us how to see them”.

    Liked by 1 person

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